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Monday 11 July 2022

Mar-burg virus infection

 Mar-burg virus  infection 


Key facts

Marburg virus  infection (MVD), formerly known as Marburg haemorrhagic fever, is a severe, often  martal illness in humans.

 The average MVD case fatality rate is around 50%. Case  mortal rates have varied from 24% to 88% in past outbreaks depending on virus strain and case management.

Early supportive care with rehydration, and emblematic treatment up grade survival. There is as yet no licensed treatment proven to neutralize the virus, but a range of blood products, resistant therapies and drug therapies are currently under development.

  section engagement is key to successfully controlling outbreaks.


Initially, human MVD infection results from prolonged uncovering to mines or caves occupy by Rousettus bat colonies.

Marburg spreads through human-to-human transmission via direct contact (through broken skin or mucous membranes) with the blood, excretion , organs or other bodily fluids of infected people, and with surfaces and materials (e.g. bedding, clothing)  pollute with these flowing .

Health-care workers have  regularly been contentment while treating patients with suspected or confirmed MVD. This has happen through close contact with  Vitim when infection control precautions are not strictly  work on . Transmission via contaminated injection  stuff or through needle-stick injuries is associated with more severe  infection , rapid worsening , and, possibly, a higher  lossrate.


Symptoms of Marburg virus disease

The  evulation period (interval from infection to onset of symptoms) varies from 2 to 21 days.

Illness caused by Marburg virus begins  directily , with high fever, severe headache and severe malaise. Muscle aches and pains are a common  mark . Severe watery diarrhoea, abdominal pain and cramping, nausea and vomiting can begin on the third day. Diarrhoea can persist for a week. The  aspect of  victim at this phase has been described as showing “ghost-like” drawn features, deep-set eyes, catatonic faces, and extreme lethargy. In the 1967 European outbreak, non-itchy rash was a feature noted in most patients between 2 and 7 days after onset of indication 

In  mortal cases, death occurs most often between 8 and 9 days after symptom onset, usually preceded by severe blood loss and shock.


Treatment and vaccines

 anymore there are no vaccines or antiviral hospitalization approved for MVD.  thought , supportive care – rehydration with oral or intravenous fluids – and treatment of specific  emlement, improves survival.


There are inflatable antibodies (mAbs) under development and curative e.g. Remdesivir and Favipiravir that have been used in clinical studies for Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) that could also be tested for MVD or used under compassionate use/expanded access.


Marburg virus in animals

Marburg virus in animals

Rousettus aegyptiacus bats are  contemplate natural hosts for Marburg virus. There is no apparent  infection in the fruit bats. As a result, the geographic issuing of Marburg virus may overlap with the range of Rousettus bats.

African green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) imported from Uganda were the source of  deases for humans  thought the first Marburg outbreak.

 caution measures are needed in pig farms in Africa to avoid pigs becoming infected through contact with fruit bats. Such infection could potentially increase the virus and cause or contribute to MVD outbreaks.

Prevention and control

Reducing the risk of bat-to-human transmission arising from lengthen exposure to mines or caves occupy by fruit bat outpost . During work or research activities or tourist visits in mines or caves populat by fruit bat colonies, people should wear gloves and other appropriate protective clothing (including masks). During outbreaks all animal products (blood and meat) should be thoroughly cooked before consumption.

Reducing the risk of human-to-human transmission in the community arising from direct or close contact with infected patients,  esepasally with their body fluids. Close physical contact with Marburg patients should be avoided. Gloves and appropriate personal protective  apparatus should be worn when taking care of ill patients at home. Regular hand washing should be performed after visiting sick relatives in hospital, as well as after taking care of ill patients at home.

Communities affected by Marburg should make efforts to ensure that the population is well informed, both about the nature of the  infection itself and about necessary outbreak containment measures.


Reducing the risk of possible sexual transmission. Based on further analysis of ongoing research, WHO  confirm that male survivors of Marburg virus disease practice safer sex and hygiene for 12 months from onset of symptoms or until their semen twice tests negative for Marburg virus. Contact with body fluids should be avoided and washing with soap and water is recommended. WHO does not  confirm  separation of male or female convalescent patients whose blood has been tested negative for Marburg virus.

Controlling infection in healthcare settings

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